Chilled Water Projects

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Wayne F. Kirsner, P.E.
Principal / Kirsner Consulting Engineering

BSME/1980/Georgia Institute of Technology
MS/Physics/1973/Georgia Institute of Technology
BS/Physics/1972/Georgia Institute of Technology

Professional Engineer/Mechanical/1983

ASHRAE Distinguished Lecturer 2001, 02, 03, 04

Annual speaker at University of Wisconsin's "Chilled Water Plants for Central and District Cooling Systems" lecturing on the causes of Low Delta-T Syndrome--1995, 96, 97, 98, 99, 00, 2001, 02.

Author of six widely referenced feature articles on chilled water design appearing in the ASHRAE Journal and HPAC Engineering . (See the Articles page).

University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Feb 2005. Authored "Analysis and Retrofit of the Chilled Water Distribution System at the University...". This project was similar in scope to that described for Washington State below.

Expert Witness and engineering consultant for high end mall retail store suing premier mall in Atlanta, GA for insufficient chilled water delivery. With TAB firm performed tests to confirm deficiencies and, after corrective repairs by the Mall, verify renmediation.

Washington State Capital Campus, Olympia, WA, 1998.  Analysis and report on the chilled water plant and distribution system serving the campus buildings surrounding the capital. The Report diagrammed out why the existing system, even though it had undergone four major retrofits over the years, still would not work properly. A comprehensive schematic drawing detailing the required system fixes was presented and explained in a presentation to Washington State officials.

Strategic Weapons Facility at Kings Bay Naval Base in St. Mary's, Georgia, 1997, 98.  Consultant for correction of HVAC deficiencies in the precision measurement calibration laboratory building. Designed two new custom central multizone units to replace 8 individual AHU's in this clean room facility. Redesigned chilled water service to building.

Designed, bid, and oversaw construction of new modernized central chilled water plant for Patterson Hospital and Joe Anne Bergen Nursing Home based on energy study authored the year before. Similarly, completed comprehensive lighting retrofit project for the Hospital and Nursing Home. These two projects are projected to save the two facilities 35% of their annual energy budget. Projects were awarded a $114,000 matching grant through the U.S. Department of Energy and State of Georgia.

At NASA Johnson Space Center, analyzed operation and energy efficiency of 14,000 ton central chilled water plant. Produced investigative report focusing on cause of chronic low temperature difference (D T) of chilled water returning from campus and cause of reverse flow in distant buildings. Identified source of problem dating back to 1960's design, and subsequent computer operation strategy. Recommended corrective actions demonstrating that pumping power could be reduced by a factor of four, saving $231,400 per year. Subsequent retrofit of a single campus building proved out predictions of report.

Also at NASA Johnson Space Center, analyzed impending purchase of two 2,000 ton steam turbine driven chillers designed by NASA's consulting engineers. Recommended alternative chiller selection based on predicted first cost savings of $300,000 and annual savings of $230,000 per year. NASA accepted recommendation, canceled procurement action, and redesigned the Chiller Plant addition based on Mr. Kirsner's recommendation.

Technical reviewer adjudging validity of energy conservation measures submitted in Technical Analysis Reports to the State of Florida's Energy Office to compete for grants through the Department of Energy's Schools & Hospitals Grant Program. Authored States Life Cycle Costing methodology to be required in all reports submitted after 1995. Conducted training session for approximately 120 professional engineers seeking certification to write Technical Analysis Reports in Florida. Conducted subsequent training session on Life Cycle Costing at DOE Region IV Conference for State Energy Directors from Southeastern States.

Forensic Analyst retained by the Georgia Department of Human Resources to investigate the cause of a steam accident which led to the death of a maintenance mechanic. Authored the report: "Analysis of Conditions and Events which led to the Valve Failure in Steam Pit 3A at Northwest Georgia Regional Hospital."

Project Manager and lead mechanical engineer for design of new $1.5 million dollar Central Steam Plant for the campus of Northwest Georgia Regional Hospital. Project included a 350 HP Wood-fired boiler and Propane-Air auxiliary fuel tank farm. Directed architectural, structural, and electrical professionals in design of new plant.

Project Engineer and Project Manager for design of $500,000 Waste-to-Energy Incineration Plant and waste heat boiler at 915 bed Grady Memorial Hospital. Obtained $385,000 grant from D.O.E. for this project.

Project Engineer for the Modernization of Chilled Water Plants at Grady Memorial Hospital. This project consisted of replacement of two 1,000-ton absorption chillers with high efficiency electric centrifugal chillers; rework of the pumping and piping scheme for constant chiller - variable system flow; computer control of an existing absorption chiller for summer peak shaving, and interconnection of a second 1,050 ton plant on the 17th floor with the new 3,000-ton Chilled Water Plant on the 7th floor. The project saved the 850-bed Grady Memorial Hospital $500,000 in its first two years of operation and solved a number of operational problems with the existing chilled water distribution system. Mr. Kirsner authored the 1983 energy study from which this project was identified and funded. It was awarded 1st Place in the Institution Category of the 1986 ASHRAE Energy Awards for the Southeast region. At Gracewood State School and Hospital in Augusta, Georgia, redesigned campus CHW distribution system to correct problems of insufficient flow and recirculation. $163,000 project consisted of retrofitting central plant chilled water pumps including provision of a 150 HP variable speed drive, replacing and reconfiguring out-building throttling controls, providing flow limiters to balance flow between buildings, and configuration of more efficient electric centrifugal chiller for "preferential loading." A new software program was written to control the campus-wide system. Projected annual energy savings was computed to be $163,000/year. Project was funded with 50% matching grant based on a study authored by Mr. Kirsner.

For the Georgia Power Headquarters Building in Atlanta, Georgia, produced contract documents to direct purchase 650 ton high-efficiency, electronic variable speed centrifugal chiller. Analyzed entire 2,000 ton plant to reconfigure piping and valving to achieve primary-secondary flow, preferential loading, and maximize beneficial use of 300,000 gallon chilled water storage system.

For Birmingham City Hall in April 1989, produced drawings and specifications to direct purchase 311 ton electric centrifugal chiller to replace existing unit. Computed new A/C loads, designed new Mechanical Room and new interconnecting piping. Oversaw bid process for City.

For Boutwell Municipal Auditorium in Birmingham in 1990, produced contract documents and oversaw bid process to direct purchase 485 ton chiller to replace existing unit, and clean up rotten piping system and fouled AHU coils. To facilitate installation, specified clean and flush of CHW piping system with corrosion removal solvent, disassembly of pipe at low points to remove scale, and provision of new strainers throughout system. Oversaw non-destructive and destructive testing of pipe sections suspected of being too thin to reuse. Specified replacement of bad piping sections. Specified replacement coils for AHU's.

Publications (See the Articles page)

  • "Designing for 42° F Chilled Water--Does It Save Energy?" Jan '98 ASHRAE Journal.
  • "Rectifying the Primary Secondary Paradigm for Chilled Water Plant Design" Jan '98 Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning magazine. 
  • The Demise of the Primary-Secondary Paradigm for Chiller Water Plant Design" -- Nov. '96 issue of Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning magazine.
  • "3 GPM/ton Condenser Water Flow -- Does it Waste Energy?"--February 1996 issue of the ASHRAE Journal.
  • "What Caused the Steam Accident that killed Jack Smith"-- July 1995 issue of Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning magazine.
  • "Troubleshooting Chilled Water Problems At The NASA Johnson Space Center" February 1995 issue of HPAC magazine.
  • "Reducing Boiler Steam Pressure To Save Energy," HPAC Magazine, December 1987. Authored follow-up article in April 1988 issue.

Presentations and Seminars

  • Speaker at ASHRAE San Francisco TC 9.2 Seminar on Energy Conservation in Industrial Facilities, January 1998. Likewise, January 1997 in Philadelphia.
  • Conducted cogeneration seminar entitled "CAN POWER CONSUMERS PRODUCE THEIR OWN POWER MORE CHEAPLY THAN THEY CAN BUY IT FROM GEORGIA POWER" for the Georgia Power Company, December 1987 dealing with independent power production and cogeneration.
  • Conducted half-day seminar and co-authored workbook for Georgia Power marketing engineering staff: "CAN AN ABSORPTION CHILLER BEAT AN ELECTRIC CENTRIFUGAL CHILLER IN A ONE-ON-ONE COST/TON-HOUR EVALUATION," December 1986.
  • Presentation at October 1991 World Energy Congress, "COMPARISON OF WATER CHILLING OPTIONS TO ACHIEVE DEMAND SIDE POWER REDUCTION." Presentation at 1992 Industrial Energy Conservation Conference sponsored by the Georgia Tech Research Institute on OPTIMUM CHILLER SELECTION.
  • Conducted two seminars for City of Birmingham Building HVAC Staff "MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLESHOOTING OF HVAC SYSTEMS."
    Conducted training session for approximately 120 professional engineers seeking certification to write TA Reports in Florida in 1995. Conducted subsequent training session on Life Cycle Costing at DOE Region IV Conference for State Energy Directors from Southeastern States.

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